Conclusions on the GIS Results

The goal of the GIS portion of the project is to produce a high-resolution classification of the park using drone imagery, as well as, visualizing changes to the Loonse en Drunense Duinen over the years using satellite imagery.

  • The high-resolution drone imagery is used to give a good idea of the vegetation in the park. It is advised to incorporate other methods in classifying these drone images, for instance, vegetation height maps and NDVI.
  • From the succession map it can be concluded that after the LIFE+ project the sandy area in the dunes has been increasing slowly. However, the sand is slowly decreasing on the study area.
  • From the maps, it can be seen that after the topsoil was removed, 80% of that area became grassy area.
  • The area, where the forest was chopped, has mostly became grassy area.

Conclusions on the Laboratory Results

The goal of the laboratory research of the project Loonse en Drunense Duinen was to find out where the nitrogen deposition comes from, and which area from the four main types of vegetation (sand, heath, grass, forest) are the most vulnerable in terms of fast succession.

Based on the results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  • The highest Nitrogen Kjeldahl concentrations were noticed on the top of the forest area, so in the forest, there is more organic matter in the top soil than it is in the top soil of other three types of vegetation.
  • The amount of Ammonia in groundwater samples were higher than in the soil samples. Furthermore, the groundwater of the first location was the richest in ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. This location is the sandy area, which situated on the East part of the Park. This location is close to one farm from the East and the nutrient concentrations are the least diluted than it is on the other locations. This is because the groundwater flows from the East part to the South.
  • The Northern areas are more vulnerable to succession, as the groundwater is richest in total nitrogen concentrations.
  • The nitrogen deposition might come from the farms to the Park by the flow of the groundwater
  • The ammonia of the soil samples is around 0.5 mg per litre.
  • The pH of the soil and groundwater samples are low, which means acidic.
  • Wet nitrogen deposition is present at the study area. The groundwater samples contained higher total nitrogen concentrations than it contained after dry season.


Click here for a video conclusion of the project.